Skip to main content
Font size options
Increase or decrease the font size for this website by clicking on the 'A's.
Contrast options
Choose a color combination to give the most comfortable contrast.






African American Voter Registration in Alexandria, 1902-1954
This list contains close to 2,100 entries taken from microfilmed voter registration roll books in the Local History/Special Collections Branch. The original roll books are located in the City of Alexandria Archives and Record Center.


"News of Interest to Colored Readers," 1927-1928
A ten-month column from the Alexandria Gazette written by African American Estelle Lane about events in her community.


Volunteers for Freedom: Black Civil War Soldiers in Alexandria National Cemetery
This list was created after a careful review of Volunteers for Freedom: Black Civil War Soldiers in Alexandria National Cemetery by Edward A. Miller, Jr., located in Local History/Special Collections. Miller's sources included -- but were not limited to -- pension files, military service records, and hospital records. His research was published in Historic Alexandria Quarterly.


Reflecting on What it Takes for a Public Library to Reckon with its Past
This interview by New American with Library Director Rose Dawson is part of a video interview series that illuminates the little-known story of the Alexandria Library sit-in of 1939. These in-depth interviews with researchers and community members not only add to the historical record—they can also deepen today's discussions of exclusion and inclusion in public libraries and schools.


This resource guide is intended to present an overview of materials available for the study of African American history in the Alexandria Library Local History/Special Collections division. It is an update of the material presented in Lucy Barber's 1992 bibliography entitled African American History Sources. The guide focuses on recent publications, acquisitions and Internet resources, in addition to providing listings for older resources which remain important in the field.

The guide has been divided into four sections by topic: General and Reference resources, materials about African American genealogy, sources on Alexandria, and sources on Virginia. Each section includes resources in several formats, including books, manuscript collections, microfilm, and Internet sites. Since the guide is intended to showcase recently-acquired materials, it in no way covers all of the library's resources that would interest patrons researching African American history.






Genovese, Eugene D.   Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Vintage Books, 1972. Genovese's volume covers all aspects of slave life, including food, clothing, resistance efforts, family life, naming, language, work ethic, religion, and miscegenation in this useful social history. 917.506 Gen 

Gutman, Herbert G.   The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom: 1750-1925. New York: Vintage Books, 1976. Gutman wrote this book to debunk the idea that black families (slave and recently-freed) lacked a strong, two-parent foundation. The book examines census information, naming patterns, domestic arrangements and kin networks, and attitudes about family, marriage and sex among blacks. 306.85 Gut 

Hadden, Sally E.   Slave Patrols. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001. Hadden discusses the development and the use of slave patrols, groups of white citizens who banded together to enforce slave laws and codes, in Virginia and South Carolina. 326.0975 Had 

Henritze, Barbara K.  Bibliographic Checklist of African American Newspapers. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing, Inc., 1995. List of over 5000 African American newspapers organized by state, with city, publication dates and publication frequency. 071.3 Hen 

Hodges, F. Holly, compiler.  Guide to African American Manuscripts in the Collection of the Virginia Historical Society. Richmond: The Society, 1995. A list of approximately 250 manuscript collections held by the Virginia Historical Society that contain information about African Americans. A summary of each collection, with details on the relevant content, is provided. 011.31 Vir 

Hornsby, Alton Jr.  Chronology of African American History: Significant Events and People From 1619 to the Present. Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1991. Describes important events in African American history, beginning in 1619 when the first slaves were brought to Virginia. The volume focuses more on recent events (the years 1619-1876 are covered in 46 pages), but it provides a good overview of the course of black history. 973.0496 Hor 

Loth, Calder, ed.   Virginia Landmarks of Black History: Sites on the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995. A list of important Virginia churches, schools, homes and other buildings related to black history. The description of each site is accompanied by one or more photographs.975.5004 Vir 

Newman, Debra L.   Black History: A Guide to Civilian Records in the National Archives. National Archives Trust Fund Board: Washington, DC: 1984. Identifies record groups which include historical information about black citizens. A description of each record group is provided, with details about the types of records contained therein. Now out-of-date, but no second edition has been published. 016.973 New 

Plunkett, Michael.   Afro-American Sources in Virginia: A Guide to Manuscripts. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990. Listings for resources held by university libraries, museums and public library systems in Virginia. Many repositories may now hold other documents as well, but still a good starting point for determining the kinds of resources available.016.975 Plu This document is also available in electronic format at the following URL: 




Ex-Slave Narratives 1938-39. Eleven reels of WPA interviews with former slaves. Reel 3 includes interviews with former slaves in Virginia. Reel 00126 






African American Genealogical Sourcebook. New York: Gale Research, 1995. Overview of resources and institutions useful for African American genealogy. Includes a section on resources, such as Freedman's Bank records and WPA slave narratives, unique to black genealogy research. Also includes listings of repositories and organizations with useful resources. 929.1 Afr

Burroughs, Tony. Black Roots: A Beginner's Guide to Tracing the African American Family Tree. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001. A how-to guide for beginning African American genealogical research for 20th-century ancestors. Burroughs takes the reader through each necessary step, explaining in detail what sources are available, what information they contain, and where to find them. Includes a section on Internet resources. 929.1089 Bur

Heinegg, Paul. Free African Americans of North Carolina, Virginia, and South Carolina from the Colonial Period to About 1820. vols. 1 and 2. 4th ed. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield Publishing, 2001. Genealogies of free blacks who lived in three Southern states. The introduction contains an overview of the development of slavery. 929.2 Hei

Johnson, Anne E. and Cooper, Adam Merton. A Student's Guide to African American Genealogy. New York: Oryx Press, 1996. Brief, basic guide aimed at young people. Provides an overview of African American history to put the difficulties of African American genealogy in context. Gives tips on doing research, as well as contact information for various organizations that will be helpful. 929.1089 Joh

Neimeyer, David E. Freedman's Savings & Trust Company: Depositor Signature Card Entries for Washington, D.C. 1865-1868. Westminster, Maryland: Willow Bend Books, 2000. Provides information given by members of the Freedman's Savings and Trust Company, which was set up in 1865 for newly-freed slaves. When becoming a member of the bank, the applicant had to submit detailed biographical information, which often included names of family members, former owners, place of birth, current address, occupation, and a physical description. See also Neimeyer's volumes that cover the years 1870 and 1871; all volumes can be found under the call number 929.3 Washington D.C. Nei.

Provine, Dorothy S. District of Columbia Free Negro Registers 1821-1861. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1996. 2 vols. Abstracts of entries from the Free Negro Registers of Washington, D.C., which gave biographical and physical information about free blacks living in the city. 929.3 Washington D.C. Pro

Sluby, Paul E., Sr., and Wormley, Stanton. Blacks in the Marriage Records of the District of Columbia Dec. 23, 1811-Jun. 16, 1870. Washington, D.C.: Columbian Harmony Society, 1988. 2 vols. Abstracts of information from Washington, D.C. marriage records. Entries are organized alphabetically and can be found under the name of the bride or the name of the groom. 929.3 Washington D.C. Slu

________. Records of the Columbian Harmony Cemetery, Washington D.C. Washington, D.C.: Columbian Harmony Society, 1993-1996. 7 vols. Interment records for the Columbian Harmony Cemetery, which was founded by free blacks in the District of Columbia. The records cover the years 1831-1959. Most of the volumes consist of reproductions of the original records, which provided information about the date and cause of death, age and residence of the person buried, and the location of the grave. 929.5 Washington D.C. Slu

Smith, Gloria L. Black Americana at Mount Vernon: Genealogy Techniques for Slave Group Research. Tucson, Arizona: G. L. Smith, 1984. Gives a history of the Washington family and their residences, assembling information about slaves held by George and Martha Washington and their families. Includes names of slaves and information about their manumission, when known. 929.1 Smi

Streets, David H. Slave Genealogy: A Research Guide with Case Studies. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1986. Describes resources to be used for finding information about slaves who did not live on large plantations. Includes three case studies and a bibliography. 929.1 Str


Freedman's Bank Records. Salt Lake City, Utah: Intellectual Reserve, Inc., Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 2000. Approximately 480,000 names are included in this database, which includes records from the Freedman's Bank from 1864-1871. Contains records from 29 branches of the bank nationwide. CD-ROM 






Artemel, Janice G.   The Alexandria Slave Pen: The Archaeology of Urban Captivity. Washington, D.C.: Engineering Science, [1987]. Archaeological and historical study of the Franklin and Armfield slave pen, located at 1315 Duke Street. The firm of Franklin and Armfield was one of the major slave-trading companies of the 19th century. 975.5296 Art 

Blomberg, Belinda.   Free Black Adaptive Responses to the Antebellum Urban Environment: Neighborhood Formation and Socioeconomic Stratification in Alexandria, Virginia, 1790-1850. Ph.D. Dissertation, American University, 1988. A doctoral thesis identifying the major areas of the city in which free blacks resided and discussing the way they changed over time. 975.5296 Blo 

________.   The Formation of Free Black Communities in Nineteenth Century Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1989. A condensed version of the previous item. 975.5296 Blo 

Bostick, Matthew E.   What Makes the Man: Armistead Lloyd Boothe and Massive Resistance in Virginia. Honors Thesis, Williams College, 1997. This undergraduate thesis provides a clear overview of the Massive Resistance movement in Virginia and highlights Boothe's role as a proponent of desegregation. 975.5 Bos 

Bromberg, Francine W. and Shephard, Steven J.   African American Heritage Park Archaeological Investigations and Preservation Strategy. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1992. Describes evidence of burials found in the area of land to be developed into the African American Heritage Park. Includes a historical overview of the area and recommendations for integrating the discoveries into plans for the park. 975.5296 Ale 

Cressey, Pamela J.   The Alexandria, Virginia City-Site: Archaeology in an Afro-American Neighborhood, 1830-1910. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 1985. Doctoral dissertation examining three lots in the Hayti neighborhood. The site is compared to rural sites in both the North and the South, and compared to other areas of Alexandria. Includes detailed information about the artifacts found in the excavation. 975.5296 Cre 

________.   The Archaeology of Free Blacks in Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1985. Overview of information discovered through archaeological excavations in free black neighborhoods. Includes city maps indicating locations of neighborhoods discussed. 975.5296 Cre 

________.   A Preliminary Historical Report: The Baptist Cemetery Association of Alexandria, Virginia Located near Holland Lane. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1985. Details about land that may have been used as an African American cemetery. 975.5296 Cre 

Deines, Ann.   The Slave Population in 1810 Alexandria, Virginia: A Preservation Plan for Historic Resources. Masters Thesis, George Washington University, 1994. Identifies archaeological resources relating to Alexandria slaves in 1810 and recommends a preservation plan for these resources. With extensive appendices that provide information about the slave population and the sites identified. 305.567 Dei 

Dolan, Laurel C.   A History of Negro Education in the Alexandria City Public Schools, 1900-1964. Masters Thesis, American University, 1969. An overview of black education in Alexandria that describes the schools, the pupils and the teachers. Some of the information for the study was obtained through interviews with local residents. 379.755296 Do 

Howard, Mark.   An Historical Study of the Desegregation of the Alexandria, Virginia, City Public Schools, 1954-1973. Masters Thesis, George Washington University, 1976. Examines the development of a segregated school system in Alexandria and discusses the course of desegregation after the Brown case. 371.974 How 

Jenkins, Virginia.   Block Profile: The North Side of the 200 Block of Wolfe Street and Lot Profile: 209 Wolfe Street (44AX56). Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1995.Historical details about several houses on Wolfe street, including part of the Hayti community. 975.5296 Jen 

Lynch, Anna.   Compendium of Early African Americans in Alexandria, Virginia. 2 vols. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1993-1995. The first volume is a name index of African Americans living in Alexandria in the years 1878-1810. The second volume includes extracts from deeds, wills, censuses and other records that pertain to individual African American residents. 975.5296 Lyn 

McCord, T. B.   Across the Fence but a World Apart: The Coleman Site, 1796-1907. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1985. Archaeological investigation of one block which had both black and white residents. The study examines the similarities and differences between the lifestyles of the residents. 975.5296 McC 

Murphy, Deirdre L. and Sidman, Sarah.   From Slavery to War: The History of 1315 Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia. McLean, Virginia: [s.n.], 1988. A brief overview of the occupation of 1315 Duke Street which includes the time during which it served as the headquarters of Franklin and Armfield's slave-trading business. Accompanied by reproductions of maps, photographs, and newspaper articles concerning the slave pen. 975.5296 Mur 

Pippenger, Wesley E.   Alexandria, Virginia Death Records 1863-1868 (The Gladwin Record) and 1869-1896. Westminster, Maryland: Family Line Publications, 1995. Abstracts of death records, including the records kept by the Rev. Albert Gladwin. Gladwin was Superintendent of Contrabands and kept details on freedmen who were buried in Alexandria between 1863 and 1868. 929.3 Alexandria Pip 

Provine, Dorothy S.   Alexandria County, Virginia: Free Negro Registers, 1797-1861. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, 1990. Abstracts from registers of free blacks in the City of Alexandria and Arlington County. Each item gives a description of the person who registered and explains how they obtained their free status. Copies of the register for 1797-1841 can be found in the microfiche collection. 929.3 Alexandria Pro 

Revis, Sara.   217 North Royal Street (44AX66) 1790-1910: Archival Profile of Site and Area Adjoining. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1991. History of a block that bordered on the African American neighborhood "The Berg" and had a mixture of white, free black, and slave residents. 975.5296 Rev 

________.   Contrast in Development: The Merchant's Mansion and a Free African American Neighborhood: Archival Profile of 113-119 South West Street and the Darnell Family. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1991. Information from deed books, wills, tax records, maps, and other documents tracing the history of a block on S. West St. that eventually came to be owned by a free black family. 975.5296 Rev 

________.   Hannah Jackson: An African American Woman and Freedom: Archival Data Pertaining to 406-408 South Royal Street. Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology, 1991. Description of the details of several wills transferring property to Hannah Jackson and her relatives. Jackson was a well-known citizen of Hayti. 975.5296 Rev 

A Study of Historic Sites in the Metropolitan Washington Regions of Northern Virginia and Southern Maryland Importantly Related to the History of Afro-Americans.   Afro-American Institute for Historic Preservation and Community Development. Washington, D.C.: The Afro-American Institute for Historic Preservation and Community Development, 1978. Photocopy of part of a report which contains information about properties in seven counties in Northern Virginia and Southern Maryland. This excerpt contains only the information on the Alexandria properties. 917.53 Afr 

To Witness the Past: African American Archaeology in Alexandria, Virginia: Catalogue of an Exhibition.   Alexandria, Virginia: Alexandria Archaeology Museum, 1993. Catalog from a 1993 exhibit showing artifacts found in black communities of Alexandria. Each item in the exhibit is described, and there are pictures of many items. Also includes a good overview of Alexandria black history. 975.5296 Ale 

Wallace, Alton S.   The Saints of Alfred Street. [S.l.]: A.S. Wallace, 1996. Information on cemeteries in Alexandria that contain African American graves. Includes details about the burial locations of several prominent members of the Alfred Street Baptist Church. 929.5 Wal 


Alexandria City Records Box 19A-19NNN Official records of the City of Alexandria. Box 19FF contains an 1822 document that granted a free African American woman permission to live in the city. 

Armistead Boothe Papers, Box 164-173 Contains information about Boothe's political activity; he was one of the few white legislators who opposed Massive Resistance and supported school integration. 

Cassette Collection, Box 232-232E Contains a 1986 interview with Annie B. Rose and a recording of the Departmental Progressive Club's African American history program in 1979. 

Helen Norris Cummings Papers, Box 72-72W Cummings was involved with Alexandria women's clubs and kept files on a wide range of topics, including radicalism, immigration and atheism. See box 72H for her file on the American Negro Labor Congress; Box 72L contains a file labeled Negroes. 

Harper's Weekly, images, Box 108: In and About Port Royal, South Carolina: Harper's Weekly, January 11, 1862 Battle at Millikens's Bend: Civil War: Harper's Weekly, July 4, 1863 Slave Pen, Alexandria, Virginia, Harper's Weekly, June 15, 1861 

Lancaster Lodge 1890-1910 Records, Box 76-76A Photocopies of correspondence and financial records of the R. H. Lancaster Lodge No. 1370, Grand United Order of Odd Fellows of the State of Virginia, an African American fraternal organization. 

Betty Harrington MacDonald, Alexandria Ship Records, 1732-1861, 1973-1989, Box 218-219B Notes on Alexandria passengers and cargo compiled by MacDonald. Box 218 contains notes about slaves born in Alexandria between 1791 and 1812. 

Roberts United Methodist Church Records Box 48 Photocopied records which include Sunday school attendance and information about church members and events recorded by the ministers. The church still holds the original records. Also available on microfilm (Reel 00073). 

Smith, Sara G. vs. Richmond & Danville Railroad, Box 239 Testimony from a court case over the effect of the railroads in the Wilkes Street area. 

Vertical File, Box 240 and 240A This group of boxes contains account books, letters, pamphlets, and other ephemeral materials that are not part of a larger collection. There are several items that relate to African Americans, including the following: 

Box 240 VF Correspondence
George Washington Parke Custis, 1853 letter identifying bearers as free born 
C.C. Bitting, 1865 to Sydney Hayden, Re: post-Civil War Alexandria (photocopy) 

Box 240A VF Correspondence
Moses Hepburn, 1846 

Box 240 VF Legal Papers
Washington, Alexandria and Georgetown Railroad Co. vs. Catherine Brown, 1868, 1873 

Box 240A VF Legal Papers
Emancipation of Slaves of Haywood Foote: Foote, William H., Legal Papers, 1837-1851 

Box 240 VF Civil War
Slave Pen, Military Administration, 1864 - Report of investigation of the U.S. Senate Committee on the conduct of the war TOP


Alexandria City Records. These 4 reels contain many items that relate to local African Americans, including court records, laws, and information about black church facilities. Check the microfilm index under "African Americans" for specific items. Reel 00580 

Free Negro Registers. Our collection includes three separate lists of free blacks in the Alexandria and Arlington areas. The years 1797-1861 are on MICROFICHE, an Alexandria register from 1809 is on Reel 552, and an 1858 register is on Reel 00548. 

Gladwin Record of Marriages and Deaths, 1863-68. Reverend Albert Gladwin recorded deaths among former slaves in Alexandria as part of his job as Superintendent of Contrabands and overseer of the Freedman's Cemetery. This is a listing of burials. Reel 00581 

People's Advocate. An African American newspaper published in Alexandria after the Civil War. This reel covers the paper's publication dates of April 1876 through July 1886. Reel 00599 

Register of Freedmen, Camp Barker 1862-1864. A list of people at Camp Barker, which was one of the places in Northern Virignia where freed slaves were housed during the Civil War. Reel 00569 

Roberts Memorial United Methodist Church Records 1887-1913. Microfilm of the church records available in our manuscript collection. Reel 00073 

Wilbur, Julia, Diaries 1844-94. Julia Wilbur was a Quaker from Rochester who came to Alexandria during the Civil War to work with freed slaves. Haverford College holds the originals of her diaries. Reel 00562


Relevant items from our vertical file collection include: 

African Americans, 1 of 2 and 2 of 2 
Alexandria Library 
Archaeology, 1 of 3, 2 of 3 and 3 of 3 
Biography -- Ford, West 
Biography -- Tucker, Samuel W. 
Brig "Enterprise" 
Cemeteries - African American thru Oak Hill 
Cemeteries - Bethel 
Churches - Alfred Street Baptist 
Neighborhoods - The Berg 
Neighborhoods - Parker Gray 
Slavery-Slave Pen 
Urban Renewal, Dip Project TOP


Photocopies of photographs from the library's many collections are arranged in binders by subject. Some relevant subjects include the following: 

Alfred St. 
The Berg 
Freedman's Village 
Pumps and Fountains 
Slave Pen 

Useful collections include the Green Glass Slide Collection. 





Burton, Judith Saunders.   A History of Gum Springs, Virginia: A Report of a Case Study of Leadership in a Black Enclave. Ed. D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1986. An overview of the history of Gum Springs, a Fairfax County community that was founded by West Ford, a former slave of the Washington family. Information was gathered through interviews with residents and investigations of primary and secondary resources. 975.5291 Bur Fairfax County 

Chase, John Terry.   Gum Springs: The Triumph of a Black Community. Fairfax, Virginia: The Heritage Resources Program of the Fairfax County Office of Comprehensive Planning, 1990. Published by Fairfax County, this history of Gum Springs covers the development of the community and its recent status. 975.5291 Cha Fairfax County

Duke, Maurice, ed.   Don't Carry Me Back!: Narratives by Former Virginia Slaves. [Richmond, Va.]: Dietz Press, 1995. A collection of previously-published narratives that describe slave life in Virginia. Accompanied by a description of the origins of Virginia slavery. 305.567 Don 

Ely, James W.   The Crisis of Conservative Virginia: The Byrd Organization and the Politics of Massive Resistance. Knoxville : University of Tennessee Press, 1976. Examines the course of desegregation in Virginia from the 1954 Brown decision to the mid-1960s. 379.263 Ely 

Holton, Woody.   Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. Examines the ways in which non-elites, including black slaves, influenced the actions of white gentlemen during the Revolutionary War. 973.311 Hol 

Immel, William Jebe.   The Destruction of Slavery in Northeastern VirginiaM.A. Dissertation, George Mason University, 1994. An account of the events that led to the end of slavery in Alexandria, Fairfax, Prince William and Stafford counties. 326.0975 Imm 

Jordan, Ervin L.   Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1995. Jordan's book examines the ways in which black residents of Virginia participated in the Civil War, describing the experiences of civilian slaves and free blacks, slaves who served as servants to Confederate soldiers, and supporters of both the Confederacy and the Union. 973.7455 Jor 

Kerr-Ritchie, Jeffrey R.   Freedpeople in the Tobacco South: Virginia, 1860-1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. Looking at the experiences of whites and freed slaves, this book explores the changes in farming and tobacco production that took place in Virginia during Reconstruction and the late 1800s. 975.5004 Ker 

Krowl, Michelle Ann.   Dixie's Other Daughters: African-American Women in Virginia, 1861-1868. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1998. An examination of the ways in which black women in Virginia interacted with the state government, their work experiences during the Civil War and Reconstruction, and domestic and race relations during Reconstruction. 975.5004 Kro 

Lassiter, Matthew D. and Lewis, Andrew B., eds.   The Moderates' Dilemma: Massive Resistance to School Desegregation in Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998. A series of essays on the massive resistance movement, examining key players and events. 379.263 Mod 

Leidholdt, Alexander.   Standing Before the Shouting Mob: Lenoir Chambers and Virginia's Massive Resistance to Public-School Integration. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997. Public schools in Norfolk, Virginia were closed for several months as part of the state's massive resistance to federally-ordered school integration. This book examines the role Lenoir Chambers, the editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, played in advocating an end to this policy. 370.1934 Lei 

McColley, Robert.   Slavery and Jeffersonian Virginia. [n.p.]: University of Illinois Press, 1964. This book explores the question of why slavery flourished during an era in which political opinions and economics seemed to indicate that the institution should be phased out. The author examines the attitudes of the gentlemen of the planter aristocracy to determine how their ideas influenced the rise and spread of the slave system. 326.9755 McC 

Saillant, John, ed.   Afro-Virginian history and culture. New York: Garland Pub., 1999. A group of essays written by scholars using the collections of the Virginia Historical Society and the Library of Virginia. Topics covered include the hiring out of slaves, blacks "passing" as white, African American churches, and black women and the U. S. Military during the Civil War.975.5004 Afr 

Schwarz, Philip J.   Migrants against Slavery: Virginians and the Nation. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001. Describes the departure of free blacks, slaves and whites from Virginia in order to escape or avoid slavery. Focuses on accounts of specific individuals and groups, with a good general introduction explaining the phenomenon. 306.362 Sch 

Sweig, Donald.   Northern Virginia Slavery: A Statistical and Demographic Investigation. Ph.D. Dissertation, The College of William and Mary, 1982. Sweig explores the development and the history of the slave family in Fairfax and Loudoun counties, using tax records, wills, census records, estate inventories and records from the slave trade to examine naming patterns and migration patterns, among other things. The dissertation concludes that Northern Virginia slave society was conducive to the formation of families. 326.0975 Swe 

Sweig, Donald, ed.   "Registrations of free Negroes commencing September court 1822, book no. 2", and "Register of free Blacks 1835, book 3": Being the Full Text of the Two Extant Volumes, 1822-1861, of Registrations of free Blacks Now in the County Courthouse, Fairfax, Virginia. Fairfax, Virginia: History Section, Office of Comprehensive Planning, Fairfax, Virginia, 1977. Information reproduced from two Fairfax County registers of blacks either born free or manumitted. Each entry provides a physical description of the person and states how his or her free status was obtained. 929.3 Swe Fairfax County 

Takagi, Midori.   Rearing Wolves to Our Own Destruction: Slavery in Richmond, Virginia, 1782-1865. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999. Describes the experiences of slaves working in living in Richmond, who were often hired out and worked to support the city's industrial economy. This developed into a situation where slaves lived away from their masters, developed communities and enjoyed more autonomy than their counterparts who worked in the fields. 306.362 Tak 

Wolf, Andrew M. D.   Black Settlement in Fairfax County, Virginia during Reconstruction. Fairfax, Virginia: [s.n.], 1975. Examines the settlement patterns of freed African Americans in Fairfax County after the Civil War. 975.5291 Wol Fairfax County 

Zaborney, John Joseph.   Slaves for Rent: Slave Hiring in Virginia. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maine, 1997. In his doctoral dissertation, Zaborney looks at the practice of slave hiring in Virginia and describes how it worked in both urban and rural environments, how it affected both male and female slaves, and how Virginia's economy contributed to the practice. 326.0975 Zab